endometrial cells in pap smear

endometrial cells in pap smear

Cervical cancer: women''s health killer updated : Hits:
Cervical cancer is common cancer among women, according to statistics: the incidence of cervical cancer ranked first for women, women of all ages are likely to occur cervical cancer, but 25 to 45 year-old women most common. Compared to female cancer mortality ranked fourth in the number of deaths accounted for 4% of cancer deaths.Uterus in the female abdomen, between the bladder and rectum is between a hollow organ. The bottom half of the cervix in a uterus is the narrow part of the cervix, the opening through the cervix into the vagina. Its function is also menstrual flow channel air into the female vagina and uterus microbial barrier, while also able to resist sexual intercourse caused by the stimulation of inflammatory reactions.Female cervical cells may be due to chronic stimulation or infection spate of inflammatory response; normal, healthy cells will thus become cervical dysplasia, which is likely to change for early cervical cancer cells. The causes of cervical cancer through sexual intercourse, the current was found to be infected with the human papillomavirus (HumanPapillomaVirus, referred to as HPV) and cervix into cancer cells. Patients have a higher chance of HPV infection in women is also relatively easy to get cervical cancer. As for the identity of partners, frequency of their sexual life does not affect the chances of cervical cancer.1. Sex life: The most common cause of human papillomavirus infec

tion is "inappropriate sexual life." Reported no sexual life of women, usually almost no cervical cancer, the sooner there is inappropriate sexual life, the more prone to subsequent cervical cancer. In terms of sexual partners, women with two or more male partners, their chances of cervical cancer is significantly increased.
2. Age: 35 to 45 years of age is a good age for cervical cancer.
3. Sexually transmitted diseases: sexually transmitted infections, which often more complex representation of life, the relative chances of cervical cancer will be higher.
4. Cervix inflammation: if long-term damage to the cervix, Popi, erosion, inflammation, may change for early cervical cancer cells.
5. Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of cervical cancer: one for smoking will reduce the immune system leaving the body to accelerate the development of cervical cancer, the other is smoking some of the material itself may lead to cervical cancer development.
6. Society and Race: Race and cervical cancer itself is not much correlation. Generally considered generally lower social and economic status of women get cervical cancer more easily, but the real factor should be an early sexual experience, and income and social status itself does not directly associated with sex.
7. Female hormones: Some scholars believe that progesterone (a female hormone) will change the stability of cervical epithelial cells, and prone to the abnormal change, it could lead to the development of cervical cancer.
The body''s immune system is considered to be an independent factor in the causes of cervical cancer. Some reports pointed out that the use of immuno-suppression drugs (Immuno-suppressant) patients - its been about cervical cancer rate of ten times the general population. In AIDS patients or carriers and the uremic patients, patients with early cervical cancer and cancer rates have increased significantly. Contraceptive use - to remove a number of other factors (such as the form of sexual life, object, etc.) in itself does not increase contraceptive cervical cancer. Semen itself does not stimulate the cervix also have cervical cancer. In some early reports did not mention the control group due to circumcision and the Jewish women have a lower probability of cervical cancer, that the foreskin is too long will affect the chances of cervical cancer. However, in some of the more modern with the control group''s report that if the other factors are removed, the foreskin is too long by itself will not increase the incidence of cervical cancer.Patients with cervical cancer is often asymptomatic. Usually to become invasive cervical cancer symptoms to appear. Most of the most common symptom is bleeding after intercourse, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and malodorous vaginal discharge. Cervical dysplasia and early cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening by means of pelvic examination to detect it, but if the violation of the uterine cervix next to adjacent normal tissue and the pelvic parietal nerve, the sciatic nerve will be pain, abdominal pain, and because of urinary tract obstruction (which may be ureteral tumor compression) hydronephrosis caused by the phenomenon.
Diagnosis of cervical Pap smears and regular pelvic examination can avoid most of the invasive cervical cancer.
1. Pap smear: is a very simple and reliable way of checking without pain, the doctor will stick and cervical brush to scrape the cervical and vaginal cells scraped off the top after taking a mixture of cervical secretion material, the dyed and then sent to laboratory for tests, aimed at detecting any abnormal cervical cells and its vicinity. Case of smear-negative, mastoid and cytomegalovirus-positive and antigen CEA, CA-754 response was intensity should be considered when further examination. The most suitable time for Pap smear is the end of each menstrual cycle to the next period before ovulation.
2. Pelvic examination: Physicians distraction vagina, cervix and vagina in order to observe the upper part refers to the consultation from the abdomen or pelvic cavity method to check the organs such as the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, bladder and rectum are abnormal.
3. Colposcopy: Colposcopy is the use of four times the microscope light in the special detailed inspection cervix. Changes from the epithelial cells were the benign and malignant lesions. Make use of colposcopy straight from the biopsy suspicious lesions for histological identification done.
4. Cone excision: When the Pap smear or pelvic examination revealed abnormal to do further tests to identify the problem lies. Physicians in the cervix and cervical tissue around the cut cone, and then sent to pathology laboratory for tests to determine whether the lesions.
5. Expansion curettage: the cervix by a physician first expansion, stretching from scraping spoon to scrape the uterine lining and cervical tissue for examination.
6. Computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET): When it is determined that cervical cancer, the need to do a computer tomography (CT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or PET to know whether there is proliferation of cervical cancer.
7. Other related tests: blood, urine tests and chest X-ray and so on.Stage cervical cancer:
The zero period: means the cancer cells (carcinoma in situ, CIS) are still confined to the cervical epithelial area.
Phase I: Cancer confined to the cervix area. From the first issue, cancer has begun to have violated the phenomenon, according to their degree of depth of violations of IA and IB was divided into two phases.
Phase II: the cancer had infringed on two-thirds of the vagina or uterus next to the connective tissue.
Phase III: The cancer has infringed on the lower third of the vagina, or have been violated to the pelvis.
Phase IV: cancer has broken through the genital parts, or has exceeded the scope of the pelvis, and a direct violation of the rectum or bladder, or even a remote transfer.Before the best treatment decisions must consider many factors, including tumor size, patient age and overall health and so on. Cervical cancer treatment methods include surgical excision, radiotherapy and chemotherapy three methods.
The zero phase (in situ): the zero disposal of cervical cancer, the highly controversial program, the general that if the majority of the edge of a cone biopsy must be the implementation of residual disease, cervical cone excision. However, if the patient is no longer considered a baby, most doctors will recommend adoption hysterectomy.
Phase I: simple hysterectomy or cervical cone biopsy method.
Phase II: IIA generally taken a hysterectomy with pelvic lymph excision, IIB will usually take the majority of radiation therapy.
The third and fourth stages of the future (including recurrent): advanced cervical cancer, standard therapy, with the 2B treatment, external beam irradiation to give a direct way with the proximity of high dose radiation therapy. However, the chemical treatment of the development can temporarily control the disease and prolong patient survival and reduce pain.
Today there are a lot of chemotherapy and radiation treatment is conducting clinical studies, including: chemotherapy and radiation therapy simultaneously implemented, the implementation of chemotherapy before radiation therapy or additional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, but so far, yet there is no evidence of a treatment program that has the best effect, all of the preliminary results need further clinical trials.After opening the uterus in radical surgery, it is often a ~ two weeks to stay in hospital. In a few days after knee surgery, there will be difficulties in urinating, abnormal bowel motility, lower abdominal pain, usually in a ~ months will return to normal. Women such as the excised uterus, menstruation will not come again. Without removal of the ovaries, is because the ovaries still produce hormones, you will not experience the physiological changes of menopause. However, if the ovaries are removed or damaged by treatment function, they would produce physiological changes of menopause, sexuality and sexual desire and the removal of the uterus and will not vary, but can not be pregnant because there may be very strong sense of loss.Clinical observation that cervical cancer in addition to local invasion and spoutside the cervix are easy to follow the stream through the lymphatic system resulting from the transfer of adjacent lymph nodes and remote. In general there are lateral pelvic or aortic lymph node metastasis the prognosis of patients, in general, weak.
According to clinical staging, based on clinically normal five-year survival rate of cervical cancer are as follows: zero period: nearly 100% in general :85-90% of the first phase of the first IIA: 80% Part IIB on :60-70 % Part IIIA of: 45% Part IIIB :30-36% of the first IV on :10-14
% Of cervical cancer risk factors, mainly from the human papilloma virus infection, which is caused by infection intercourse. Another risk factor is smoking, thus reducing sexual partners and smoking cessation, cervical cancer is to reduce the steps. After treatment for cervical cancer, regular follow-up examinations is very important. Physicians must confirm the abnormal tissue has been completely removed cancer, regular follow-up examinations including pelvic examination, Pap smear and other laboratory detection method.
Incidence of cervical cancer is a national health standards and preventive health care quality indicators. Million population of neutron incidence of cervical cancer, Israel 3, white Americans is 6.8, 7.6 in New Zealand, Japan 10, Taiwan and Hong Kong about 23 people, 48.2 persons in Colombia, Brazil, 83.2 in the hope that by our common efforts to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Overall, cervical cancer is preventable and early treatment of cancer. It is not difficult to check, I would like to appeal once a year pap smear, to control their own health! Previous article: Cervical Cancer

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